Code Layout and Version Control

So, a few people commented on my how to write Python code that doesn't suck post, and I thought I'd respond here rather than in the comments.

First, John Camara suggests adding the MIT license as an option. I chose the BSD because it's essentially equivalent to the MIT license, except for the no-attribution clause, which I think is pretty reasonable; read more here.

Next, John Dawson asks,

In the article, you said: "Note that you can always organize your actual files in as deep a hierarchy as you want, while keeping the public API shallow and easy to use."

How is this technique best accomplished?

I cover this in a bit more detail in the Advanced SWC section on packages, but the essential idea is that you import as many objects/functions/classes as you can in the top-level package's This makes them available as toplevel.symbol as opposed to toplevel.lower1.lower2.symbol, even if they actually reside in toplevel/lower1/

One counterargument to this approach is that you may not want to import "optional" sub-packages, i.e. packages that may not be used by everyone using your top-level package, as a matter of performance. I contend that (except in extreme cases) this is an issue of usability over performance, and I tend to weight those 80/20 (that is, usability is more important than performance, in general). So I choose better layouts over performance improvements.

Are there other reasons to keep symbols confined below the top level? I understand from Baiju's post that the Zope community has done so simply to manage the proliferation of names, which seems sensible. I like the idea, but until Baiju's post it always confused me a bit; maybe others haven't been confused and it's just me.

Finally, Gael Varoquaux asked me (in private e-mail) about version control. He was hoping that I had some killer text that would convince people to use version control, instead of (for example) having every file in the directory tagged by date.

Unfortunately, I don't have any really convincing text. I feel that I'm most convincing when I'm talking about the need for testing, although that's apparently so much less obvious than version control that my arguments still don't work well ;). (Yes, it's counterintuitive to me, but every serious programmer I know uses version control, while many of them don't write any automated tests at all!)

Moreover, I think -- at least in academia -- that switching approaches often comes down to a matter of ego. People don't want to change, because they think they know better than you. (This is as opposed to the somewhat more understandable reason of them being unwilling to spend the time to learn the new technique.) As you can probably tell from my frustration in the first and second drafts of the original article, I am in favor of submerging your own ego regarding code appearance; the same is true of tool use. I strongly believe that individual programmers usually don't know best and that they should be open to new approaches; the rare times when I listen to other people is when I make the most headway on my big problems! Overcoming ego demands a certain delicacy of approach.

What to say, then, in favor of version control? Forget the arguments that will appeal to experienced programmers - we're talking about people newly off the boat, so to speak. What we need are arguments that sidestep ego as much as possible while pushing the rewards of putting in the necessary effort to learn a VCS.

My arguments would be:

  1. Using version control will let you figure out what has changed between two versions. This comes in particularly handy when you need to track down bugs, or figure out precisely what changes you've made since your last release.

    Yes, you can keep dated copies of individual files, or even your entire archive, but version control will do this more quickly and easily and moreover provide a better interface to querying them.

  2. Using version control through a public site like SourceForge or Google Code gets your code out there in the search engines and encourages people to collaborate with you. It's also a good way to build your resume: for example, I'm unlikely to consider hiring someone who has no verifiable open source project experience.

  3. Using version control is a great way to quickly and automatically back up your code. Since most VCS explicitly support remote repositories, off-site backups are built into the code! You can even have Google or SourceForge back up your code for you, which is pretty dang convenient.

  4. When you do get collaborators, version control is going to be necessary. Be optimistic -- plan ahead!

Comments welcome, either privately or on this post.



Legacy Comments

Posted by Tennessee Leeuwenburg on 2007-09-26 at 20:04.

I find that version control is essentially mandatory in a team
environment. It simply becomes part of the workflow, supporting and
simplifying the job of coding.    It is also a form of backup. Have
your CVS repository somewhere other than your own computer and relax a

Posted by michael schurter on 2007-09-27 at 13:46.

CVS?  Try bzr.  :)  It can be used in a centralized or distributed way
(or best yet: both at once!).    Senseless fanboying aside, there are
a number of great VCSes out there and no good reason **not** to use
them.    Thanks for the great post!  As a relatively new Python
developer (coming from PHPland), learning how to organize my projects
has been very difficult.

Posted by Titus Brown on 2007-09-27 at 14:26.

Michael, thanks for the kind comment!    With respect to bzr, the key
words are "everyone has  clients for them and everyone knows how to
use them."  I don't feel like this is true for **any** of the
distributed VCS, while it is certainly true of both CVS and SVN... but
I'll add something about using a distributed VCS.    thanks,  --titus

Posted by Carl Friedrich Bolz on 2007-09-27 at 14:27.

The py-lib contains a nifty (if maybe hackish) approach to separate
the directory/file hierarchy and the exposed namespace of a package.
See the <em>_init_</em>.py file of the py-lib itself as an example:
<a href="<em>_init_</em>.py">http:
//<em>_init_</em>.py</a>    The
"exportdefs" dictionary maps names in the "py" package to names in
files. Those files are imported lazily when the package is accessed.
This means you  can say "import py" and then use all the subpackages
of the py-lib and have them loaded on demand.

Posted by Paddy3118 on 2007-09-27 at 16:05.

Maybe the experienced programmers should act as if VCS is like
breathing air - done witout thought (or question). The new programmers
might then adopt the same view.    - Paddy.

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