Training and teaching
Datacarpentry.org - the home base for Data Carpentry, which runs two day workshops around the world and has an instructor training program that teaches people to teach their materials.
data8.org - the home base for the UC Berkeley "Foundations of Data Science" course. All open/free materials running with open source tools.
Reading and background
Influential works in Data-Driven Discovery, a paper by Mark Stalzer and Chris Mentzel, that outlines topics that probably fit within the "data science" field.
Project Jupyter: Computational Narratives as the Engine of Collaborative Data Science, a grant proposal by the Jupyter team.
Some Web sites worth visiting
Media for thinking the unthinkable by Bret Victor - an inspiring video lecture that I happened across as I was preparing my talk...
Please add resources below in the comments!