An Extended Introduction to the nose Unit Testing Framework


Welcome! This is an introduction, with lots and lots of examples, to the nose unit test discovery & execution framework. If that's not what you want to read, I suggest you hit the Back button now.

The latest version of this document can be found at

(Last modified October 2006.)

What are unit tests?

A unit test is an automated code-level test for a small "unit" of functionality. Unit tests are often designed to test a broad range of the expected functionality, including any weird corner cases and some tests that should not work. They tend to interact minimally with external resources like the disk, the network, and databases; testing code that accesses these resources is usually put under functional tests, regression tests, or integration tests.

(There's lots of discussion on whether unit tests should do things like access external resources, and whether or not they are still "unit" tests if they do. The arguments are fun to read, and I encourage you to read them. I'm going to stick with a fairly pragmatic and broad definition: anything that exercises a small, fairly isolated piece of functionality is a unit test.)

Unit tests are almost always pretty simple, by intent; for example, if you wanted to test an (intentionally naive) regular expression for validating the form of e-mail addresses, your test might look something like this:

EMAIL_REGEXP = r'[\S.]+@[\S.]+'

def test_email_regexp():
   # a regular e-mail address should match
   assert re.match(EMAIL_REGEXP, '')

   # no domain should fail
   assert not re.match(EMAIL_REGEXP, 'test@')

There are a couple of ways to integrate unit tests into your development style. These include Test Driven Development, where unit tests are written prior to the functionality they're testing; during refactoring, where existing code -- sometimes code without any automated tests to start with -- is retrofitted with unit tests as part of the refactoring process; bug fix testing, where bugs are first pinpointed by a targetted test and then fixed; and straight test enhanced development, where tests are written organically as the code evolves. In the end, I think it matters more that you're writing unit tests than it does exactly how you write them.

For me, the most important part of having unit tests is that they can be run quickly, easily, and without any thought by developers. They serve as executable, enforceable documentation for function and API, and they also serve as an invaluable reminder of bugs you've fixed in the past. As such, they improve my ability to more quickly deliver functional code -- and that's really the bottom line.

Why use a framework? (and why nose?)

It's pretty common to write tests for a library module like so:

def test_me():
   # ... many tests, which raise an Exception if they fail ...

if __name__ == '__main__':

The 'if' statement is a little hook that runs the tests when the module is executed as a script from the command line. This is great, and fulfills the goal of having automated tests that can be run easily. Unfortunately, they cannot be run without thought, which is an amazingly important and oft-overlooked requirement for automated tests! In practice, this means that they will only be run when that module is being worked on -- a big problem.

People use unit test discovery and execution frameworks so that they can add tests to existing code, execute those tests, and get a simple report, without thinking. Below, you'll see some of the advantages that using such a framework gives you: in addition to finding and running your tests, frameworks can let you selectively execute certain tests, capture and collate error output, and add coverage and profiling information. (You can always write your own framework -- but why not take advantage of someone else's, even if they're not as smart as you?)

"Why use nose in particular?" is a more difficult question. There are many unit test frameworks in Python, and more arise every day. I personally use nose, and it fits my needs fairly well. In particular, it's actively developed, by a guy (Jason Pellerin) who answers his e-mail pretty quickly; it's fairly stable (it's in beta at the time of this writing); it has a really fantastic plug-in architecture that lets me extend it in convenient ways; it integrates well with distutils; it can be adapted to mimic any other unit test discovery framework pretty easily; and it's being used by a number of big projects, which means it'll probably still be around in a few years.

I hope the best reason for you to use nose will be that I'm giving you this extended introduction ;).

A few simple examples

First, install nose. Using setuptools, this is easy:

easy_install nose

Now let's start with a few examples. Here's the simplest nose test you can write:

def test_b():
    assert 'b' == 'b'

Put this in a file called, and then run nosetests. You will see this output:

Ran 1 test in 0.005s


If you want to see exactly what test was run, you can use nosetests -v.

test_stuff.test_b ... ok

Ran 1 test in 0.015s


Here's a more complicated example.

class TestExampleTwo:
    def test_c(self):
        assert 'c' == 'c'

Here, nose will first create an object of type TestExampleTwo, and only then run test_c:

test_stuff.TestExampleTwo.test_c ... ok

Most new test functions you write should look like either of these tests -- a simple test function, or a class containing one or more test functions. But don't worry -- if you have some old tests that you ran with unittest, you can still run them. For example, this test:

class ExampleTest(unittest.TestCase):
    def test_a(self):
        self.assert_(1 == 1)

still works just fine:

test_a (test_stuff.ExampleTest) ... ok

Test fixtures

A fairly common pattern for unit tests is something like this:

def test():

Here, setup_test is a function that creates necessary objects, opens database connections, finds files, etc. -- anything that establishes necessary preconditions for the test. Then do_test and make_test_assertions acually run the test code and check to see that the test completed successfully. Finally -- and independently of whether or not the test succeeded -- the preconditions are cleaned up, or "torn down".

This is such a common pattern for unit tests that most unit test frameworks let you define setup and teardown "fixtures" for each test; these fixtures are run before and after the test, as in the code sample above. So, instead of the pattern above, you'd do:

def test():

test.setUp = setup_test
test.tearDown = cleanup_after_test

The unit test framework then examines each test function, class, and method for fixtures, and runs them appropriately.

Here's the canonical example of fixtures, used in classes rather than in functions:

class TestClass:
   def setUp(self):

   def tearDown(self):

   def test_case_1(self):

   def test_case_2(self):

   def test_case_3(self):

The code that's actually run by the unit test framework is then

for test_method in get_test_classes():
   obj = TestClass()

That is, for each test case, a new object is created, set up, and torn down -- thus approximating the Platonic ideal of running each test in a completely new, pristine environment.

(Fixture, incidentally, comes from the Latin "fixus", meaning "fixed". The origin of its use in unit testing is not clear to me, but you can think of fixtures as permanent appendages of a set of tests, "fixed" in place. The word "fixtures" make more sense when considered as part of a test suite than when used on a single test -- one fixture for each set of tests.)

Examples are included!

All of the example code in this article is available in a .tar.gz file. Just download the package at

and unpack it somewhere; information on running the examples is in each section, below.

To run the simple examples above, go to the top directory in the example distribution and type

nosetests -w simple/ -v

A somewhat more complete guide to test discovery and execution

nose is a unit test discovery and execution package. Before it can execute any tests, it needs to discover them. nose has a set of rules for discovering tests, and then a fixed protocol for running them. While both can be modified by plugins, for the moment let's consider only the default rules.

nose only looks for tests under the working directory -- normally the current directory, unless you specify one with the -w command line option.

Within the working directory, it looks for any directories, files, modules, or packages that match the test pattern. [ ... ] In particular, note that packages are recursively scanned for test cases.

Once a test module or a package is found, it's loaded, the setup fixtures are run, and the modules are examined for test functions and classes -- again, anything that matches the test pattern. Any test functions are run -- along with associated fixtures -- and test classes are also executed. For each test method in test classes, a new object of that type is instantiated, the setup fixture (if any) is run, the test method is run, and (if there was a setup fixture) the teardown fixture is run.

Running tests

Here's the basic logic of test running:

if has_setup_fixture(test):



   if has_setup_fixture(test):

Unlike for tests themselves, however, test fixtures on test modules and test packages are run only once. This extends the test logic above to this:

### run module setup fixture

if has_setup_fixture(test_module):

### run all tests

   for test in get_tests(test_module):

      try:                               ### allow individual tests to fail
         if has_setup_fixture(test):



            if has_setup_fixture(test):


   ### run module teardown fixture

   if has_setup_fixture(test_module):

A few additional notes:

  • if the setup fixture fails, no tests are run and the teardown fixture isn't run, either.
  • if there is no setup fixture, then the teardown fixture is not run.
  • whether or not the tests succeed, the teardown fixture is run.
  • all tests are executed even if some of them fail.

Debugging test discovery

nose can only execute tests that it finds. If you're creating a new test suite, it's relatively easy to make sure that nose finds all your tests -- just stick a few assert 0 statements in each new module, and if nose doesn't kick up an error it's not running those tests! It's more difficult when you're retrofitting an existing test suite to run inside of nose; in the extreme case, you may need to write a plugin or modify the top-level nose logic to find the existing tests.

The main problem I've run into is that nose will only find tests that are properly named and within directory or package hierarchies that it's actually traversing! So placing your test modules under the directory my_favorite_code won't work, because nose will not even enter that directory. However, if you make my_favorite_code a package, then nose will find your tests because it traverses over modules within packages.

In any case, using the -vv flag gives you verbose output from nose's test discovery algorithm. This will tell you whether or not nose is even looking in the right place(s) to find your tests.

The nose command line

Apart from the plugins, there are only a few options that I use regularly.

-w: Specifying the working directory

nose only looks for tests in one place. The -w flag lets you specify that location; e.g.

nosetests -w simple/

will run only those tests in the directory ./simple/.

As of the latest development version (October 2006) you can specify multiple working directories on the command line:

nosetests -w simple/ -w basic/

See Running nose programmatically for an example of how to specify multiple working directories using Python, in nose 0.9.

-s: Not capturing stdout

By default, nose captures all output and only presents stdout from tests that fail. By specifying '-s', you can turn this behavior off.

-v: Info and debugging output

nose is intentionally pretty terse. If you want to see what tests are being run, use '-v'.

Specifying a list of tests to run

nose lets you specify a set of tests on the command line; only tests that are both discovered and in this set of tests will be run. For example,

nosetests -w simple tests/

only runs the function test_b found in simple/tests/

Running doctests in nose

Doctests are a nice way to test individual Python functions in a convenient documentation format. For example, the docstring for the function multiply, below, contains a doctest:

def multiply(a, b):
  'multiply' multiplies two numbers and returns the result.

  >>> multiply(5, 10)
  >>> multiply(-1, 1)
  >>> multiply(0.5, 1.5)
  return a*b

The doctest module (part of the Python standard module) scans through all of the docstrings in a package or module, executes any line starting with a >>>, and compares the actual output with the expected output contained in the docstring.

Typically you run these directly on a module level, using the sort of __main__ hack I showed above. The doctest plug-in for nose adds doctest discovery into nose -- all non-test packages are scanned for doctests, and any doctests are executed along with the rest of the tests.

To use the doctest plug-in, go to the directory containing the modules and packages you want searched and do

nosetests --with-doctest

All of the doctests will be automatically found and executed. Some example doctests are included with the demo code, under basic; you can run them like so:

% nosetests -w basic/ --with-doctest -v
doctest of app_package.stuff.function_with_doctest ... ok

Note that by default nose only looks for doctests in non-test code. You can add --doctest-tests to the command line to search for doctests in your test code as well.

The doctest plugin gives you a nice way to combine your various low-level tests (e.g. both unit tests and doctests) within one single nose run; it also means that you're less likely to forget about running your doctests!

The 'attrib' plug-in -- selectively running subsets of tests

The attrib extension module lets you flexibly select subsets of tests based on test attributes -- literally, Python variables attached to individual tests.

Suppose you had the following code (in attr/

def testme1():
    assert 1

testme1.will_fail = False

def testme2():
    assert 0

testme2.will_fail = True

def testme3():
    assert 1

Using the attrib extension, you can select a subset of these tests based on the attribute will_fail. For example, nosetests -a will_fail will run only testme2, while nosetests -a \!will_fail will run both testme1 and testme3. You can also specify precise values, e.g. nosetests -a will_fail=False will run only testme1, because testme3 doesn't have the attribute will_fail.

You can also tag tests with lists of attributes, as in attr/

def testme5():
    assert 1

testme5.tags = ['a', 'b']

def testme6():
    assert 1

testme6.tags = ['a', 'c']

Then nosetests -a tags=a will run both testme5 and testme6, while nosetests -a tags=b will run only testme5.

Attribute tags also work on classes and methods as you might expect. In attr/, the following code

class TestMe:
    x = True

    def test_case1(self):
        assert 1

    def test_case2(self):
        assert 1

    test_case2.x = False

lets you run both test_case1 (with -a x) and test_case2 (with -a \!x); here, methods inherit the attributes of their parent class, but can override the class attributes with method-specific attributes.

Running nose programmatically

nose has a friendly top-level API which makes it accessible to Python programs. You can run nose inside your own code by doing this:

import nose

### configure paths, etc here

### do other stuff here

By default nose will pick up on sys.argv; if you want to pass in your own arguments, use You can also override the default test collector, test runner, test loader, and environment settings at this level. This makes it convenient to add in certain types of new behavior; see multihome/multihome-nose for a script that lets you specify multiple "test home directories" by overriding the test collector.

There are a few caveats to mention about using the top-level nose commands. First, be sure to use, not nose.main -- nose.main will exit after running the tests (although you can wrap it in a 'try/finally' if you insist). Second, in the current version of nose (0.9b1), swipes sys.stdout, so print will not yield any output after completes. (This should be fixed soon.)

Writing plug-ins -- a simple guide

As nice as nose already is, the plugin system is probably the best thing about it. nose uses the setuptools API to load all registered nose plugins, allowing you to install 3rd party plugins quickly and easily; plugins can modify or override output handling, test discovery, and test execution.

nose comes with a couple of plugins that demonstrate the power of the plugin API; I've discussed two (the attrib and doctest plugins) above. I've also written a few, as part of the pinocchio nose extensions package.

Here are a few tips and tricks for writing plugins.

  • read through the nose.plugins.IPluginInterface code a few times.

  • for the want* functions (wantClass, wantMethod, etc.) you need to know:

    • a return value of True indicates that your plugin wants this item.
    • a return value of False indicates that your plugin doesn't want this item.
    • a return value of None indicates that your plugin doesn't care about this item.

    Also note that plugins aren't guaranteed to be run in any particular order, so you have to order them yourself if you need this. See the pinocchio.decorator module (part of pinocchio) for an example.

  • abuse stderr. As much as I like the logging package, it can confuse matters by capturing output in ways I don't fully understand (or at least don't want to have to configure for debugging purposes). While you're working on your plugin, put import sys; err = sys.stderr at the top of your plugin module, and then use err.write to produce debugging output.

  • notwithstanding the stderr advice, -vv is your friend -- it will tell you that your test file isn't even being examined for tests, and it will also tell you what order things are being run in.

  • write your initial plugin code by simply copying nose.plugins.attrib and deleting everything that's not generic. This greatly simplifies getting your plugin loaded & functioning.

  • to register your plugin, you need this code in e.g. a file called ''

    from setuptools import setup
        packages = ['my_nose_plugin'],
        entry_points = {
            'nose.plugins': [
                'pluginA = my_nose_plugin:pluginA',

    You can then install (and register) the plugin with easy_install ., run in the directory containing ''.

nose caveats -- let the buyer beware, occasionally

I've been using nose fairly seriously for a while now, on multiple projects. The two most frustrating problems I've had are with the output capture (mentioned above, in Running nose programmatically) and a situation involving the logging module. The output capture problem is easily taken care of, once you're aware of it -- just be sure to save sys.stdout before running any nose code. The logging module problem cropped up when converting an existing unit test suite over to nose: the code tested an application that used the logging module, and reconfigured logging so that nose's output didn't show up. This frustrated my attempts to trace test discovery to no end -- as far as I could tell, nose was simply stopping test discovery at a certain point! I doubt there's a general solution to this, but I thought I'd mention it.

Credits & Legalese

Jason Pellerin, besides for being the author of nose, has been very helpful in answering questions! Terry Peppers and Chad Whitacre kindly sent me errata.

This introduction is Copyright (C) 2006, C. Titus Brown, Please don't redistribute or publish it without his express permission.

Comments, corrections, and additions are welcome, of course!